The poetry of a dead veteran spoke to me today. He was a close friend of J.R.R. Tolkien, and in a sense his life lives on in the descriptions of Middle Earth.
In a recent column my Canadian friend Brenton Dickieson, introduced me to one of the many poets whose lives tragically ended on the battlefields of WWI.
Professor Dickieson describes the context of a new film about the impact of the war on J.R.R. Tolkien. It is called Tolkien’s Great War. It is based on the book Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle-earth.
You will find a link to the half hour documentary below, and I strongly—yes, strongly—encourage you to watch it. It is quite moving.
Like most members of their generation, Tolkien and C.S. Lewis were deeply moved by the horrors of the First World War. Both served on the front lines, in the grim trenches, during the bloody conflict. And they lost friends. I’ve written in the past about their military service, including posts here, here, and here.
The Deceased Poet
The documentary describes the untimely deaths of two of Tolkien’s closest friends during the war. One of them, Geoffrey Bache Smith, was a poet.
Following his death, Tolkien gathered together his writings and published them as a tribute to his friend. It was one of the earliest contributions to a wealth of soldier’s poetry that would deluge grieving Europeans by the close of the conflict.
Due to the brevity of his life, the collection, published as A Spring Harvest, is short. Tolkien also penned an introduction to the work which is equally Spartan. The literary austerity is fitting, given the sad reason for the volume’s brevity. The introduction, in full, reads:
The poems of this book were written at very various times, one (“Wind over the Sea”) I believe even as early as 1910, but the order in which they are here given is not chronological beyond the fact that the third part contains only poems written after the outbreak of the war. Of these some were written in England (at Oxford in particular), some in Wales and very many during a year in France from November 1915 to December 1916, which was broken by one leave in the middle of May.
“The Burial of Sophocles,” which is here placed at the end, was begun before the war and continued at odd times and in various circumstances afterwards; the final version was sent me from the trenches.
Beyond these few facts no prelude and no envoi is needed other than those here printed as their author left them.
The poems themselves run the gamut of emotions. This is unsurprising, given that some were born during the idyll dreams of youth, while others were forged by the anvil of war.
The limited press run of the book has made it difficult to find. Fortunately, it is now available for free via Project Gutenberg.
While the poems include the familiar references to the “old gods” so common to the period, there are also some moving references to a more Christian ethos.
The wind that scatters dying leaves
And whirls them from the autumn tree
Is grateful to the ship that cleaves
With stately prow the scurrying sea.
Heedless about the world we play
Like children in a garden close:
A postern bars the outward way
And what’s beyond it no man knows:
For careless days, a life at will,
A little laughter, and some tears,
These are sufficiency to fill
The early, vain, untroubled years,
Till at the last the wind upheaves
His unimagined strength, and we
Are scattered far, like autumn leaves,
Or proudly sail, like ships at sea.
Tolkien and Smith formed half of the T.C.B.S., a communion knit together during the school years. The war would cut that number in half, as poignantly described in Tolkien and the Great War. The first of the companions had already died, and five months later Smith was spending the final moments of his own life encouraging his friend to press on, whatever might befall him.
Before reading Smith’s “So We Lay Down the Pen,” consider his final letter to Tolkien. He wrote it as he prepared to lead a night scout through dead man’s land at the front. It was dangerous duty which did indeed, that very evening, cost him his life.
My chief consolation is that if I am scuppered [ambushed and killed] tonight—I am off on duty in a few minutes—there will still be left a member of the great T.C.B.S. to voice what I dreamed and what we all agreed upon. For the death of one of its members cannot, I am determined, dissolve the T.C.B.S.
Death can make us loathsome and helpless as individuals, but it cannot put an end to the immortal four! A discovery I am going to communicate to Rob before I go off tonight. And do you write it also to Christopher. May God bless you my dear John Ronald and may you say things I have tried to say long after I am not there to say them if such be my lot.
Tolkien compiled Smith’s poems as a tribute. And, when he wrote his masterpieces, there is a profound sense in which he truly did say things his friends had tried to say, long after they were not there to say them.
So We Lay Down the Pen
So we lay down the pen,
So we forbear the building of the rime,
And bid our hearts be steel for times and a time
Till ends the strife, and then,
When the New Age is verily begun,
God grant that we may do the things undone.
10 thoughts on “Tolkien’s Inspiration”
Unless parents and school return to reading/teaching writers from the battles, (many discarded to make room for diverse reading selections) a great deal of wisdom gained by actual experience may be lost. Universal themes/topice/conditions of man are not limited to any one race or creed…that’s why they are called “universal” and have something to offer all – across time.
Tossing out the bath water with the baby.
Solid post. Thanks
You’re right. Sometimes increasing the breadth of studies demands a sacrifice in terms of their depth. Very superficial education is the norm.
You’re also correct about the universal human condition being common to us all and resulting in those themes remaining pertinent and timeless.
Thank you for spreading the word about this wonderful film. As a point of information, its title is “Tolkien’s Great War”.
“Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle-earth” is indeed the title of my 2003 book, which was the primary source for the film. In the book (a Mythopoeic Award winner) you will find a great deal more about the war experiences of Tolkien and their impact on his creative life, as well as much about G. B. Smith and the other members of Tolkien’s circle of former schoolfriends, the T.C.B.S.
The filmmakers recently released a further film about another T.C.B.S. member, Robert Quilter Gilson, based on my work with his papers. You will find it at my blog here: https://johngarth.wordpress.com/2016/05/11/rob-gilson-tcbs-a-documentary/
Thank you, John. I made the correction. I look forward to reading your book in the future. Also intend to check out the newer release right now…
Thank you, Rob.
I’ll just mention one pertinent point from my book. When Tolkien drafted the projected end to “The Book of Lost Tales”, the 1916–c.1920 version of what became “The Silmarillion”, he wrote:
“But behold, Tavrobel shall not know its name, and all the land be changed, and even these written words of mine belike will all be lost, and so I lay down the pen, and so of the fairies cease to tell.”
The fairies are what he later came to call Elves; Tavrobel is a town in “the Lonely Isle” where they dwell. The ending echoes the lines by his friend G. B. Smith that you quote.
Thanks for sharing this insight. The laying down of a writer’s pen is a powerful metaphor indeed.
I took the time to watch the video. Very, very good indeed. The realities of war touched the pen and brought forth imagery that has stayed with generations.
I’m glad you enjoyed it also… although “enjoyed” isn’t the right word for something so deeply moving…
Agree. Enjoy is not the right word. Emotional and moving are better terms. Everything I watch on this day is that way. So many lives lost through war.
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